The oil supply amount refers to the amount of fuel supplied to the fuel injector by the fuel injection pump according to the requirements of the engine working load. For the multi-cylinder engine, the oil supply amount of each cylinder cannot be different by 3%, so as not to affect the normal operation of the diesel engine. The fuel supply is controlled by the governor. The governor can automatically change the fuel supply amount with the change of the load within the specified speed range, control the maximum speed of the crankshaft and maintain the minimum speed to make the diesel engine work normally. Excessive oil supply, too small and uneven oil supply will affect the operation of the diesel engine.
If the fuel supply of the fuel injection pump is too small, the diesel engine will be difficult to start and the power will be insufficient. The reason: (1) The fuel supply amount of the fuel injection pump is adjusted by the oil amount adjustment mechanism according to the load of the diesel engine. If the fuel pump adjustment lever and the guide groove are stuck at the position where the oil supply amount is the smallest, or the lever, rack and fork of the governor are stuck, and the minimum position of the fuel supply is stuck, the spray will be caused. The oil supply to the oil pump is too small. (2) The plunger of the fuel injection pump is seriously worn, and the sealing performance is degraded, which also causes the oil supply pressure and the oil supply to decrease. (3) The fuel injection valve of the fuel injection pump works poorly, and the internal leakage increases, causing the oil supply to drop.
If the fuel supply of the fuel injection pump is too large, black smoke will occur due to the abnormal air-fuel ratio. The reason: (1) improper adjustment of the plunger, so that the oil supply is too large. (2) Adjust the gear lock nut to loosen and shift the adjustment gear. (3) The governor arm limit screw is improperly adjusted. In order to improve the speed of the locomotive, some operators do not adjust the speed adjustment screw and the oil limiter abnormally. What is more, the throttle lever is directly hung on the speed control spring to increase the rotation speed by mistake, which not only accelerates the wear of the parts, but also accelerates the wear of the parts. The safety of the locomotive will also decrease; the mechanical efficiency will decrease and the fuel consumption rate will increase. According to the measurement, if the D speed exceeds 10% of the specified limit value, the fuel consumption rate will increase by 3% to 4%.
The oil supply of the multi-cylinder diesel engine is not uniform, which will cause the knocking sound of the cylinder with a large amount of oil to work and emit black smoke. At idle speed, there is a "carriage" phenomenon when the speed fluctuations are severe. The reason is: improper correction of the fuel injection pump, wear of the maximum oil supply restriction device, improper assembly or adjustment of the oil quantity control mechanism, etc. In addition, the main components of the fuel injection pump and the injector of each cylinder are unevenly worn, or the plunger spring and the oil discharge valve The spring is permanently deformed or broken.