How Does A Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump Work?

- Dec 24, 2017 -

Similar to other pumps, a Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump (LRVP) has a bladed impeller attached to a center hub.

Typical centrifugal pumps increase the operating pressure of pumped fluid: the fluid at the pump suction port (flange) has a low pressure value, whereas after passing through the various pumps impellers stages, the fluid is discharged from the pump's discharge port (flange) with a higher pressure. Unlike centrifugal pumps, LRVPs are used to pull air out of low pressure vessels so that the vessel pressure drops below atmospheric pressure value and vacuum conditions are created.

The major construction difference between liquid ring vacuum pumps and other pumps is that this impeller is off-set from the center of the pump. Consequently, the blades on the top of the pump are closer to the outside wall than those located at the side of the pump and those located at the bottom of the pump. The compression is performed by the liquid ring as a result of this relative eccentricity.

The eccentricity leads to partial filling and then partial emptying of each rotor chamber during a revolution. This partial filling and emptying action leads to a piston action within each set of rotor or impeller blades. Pump parts are assembled in such a way so as to allow gas in when the rotor chamber is emptying of liquid and discharge gas once the compression has been completed.

Liquid ring vacuum pumps typically use a liquid seal to achieve a vacuum. The most widely used liquid is water – typically used once through and rejected to drain. Quite often, a cooling water system is also in place so as to dissipate the heat produced during operation. At this case, a portion of the liquid in the casing is continuously discharged with the gas, collected in a separator vessel and led to a heat exchanger. The cooled liquid is then introduced back to the pump casing in order to remove the heat of compression.

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